Answer: (Jarawa in Andaman, Lepcha in Sikkim,Jaunsari in Uttarakhand, Kondh in Orissa,
Bodo in Assam, Khasi in Meghalaya, Gond in Madhya Pradesh, Gaddi in Himachal Pradesh,
Rabari in Gujarat, Bhil in Rajasthan)
Nelson ‘Mandiba’ Mandela was a beacon of hope for the racially torn South Africa. He fought against injustice to help the blacks stand shoulder to shoulder with the whites. He is the only non-Indian other than Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan to be conferred the Bharat Ratna. A symbol of hope for many, Mandela was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993.
Instrumental in abolishing apartheid; Nelson Mandela was S. Africa’s first ever black president. Here’s going back in time to know the leader
1949, South Africa: The African National Congress has been undergoing a slow but steady transformation. At the ANC annual conference, older, more conservative leaders were replaced. The ANC officially made non-violence disobedience its policy. This comes as a victory for the ANC Youth League that has been advocating a more radical approach to reform. The group had condemned ANC’s initial policy of polite petitioning and tagged it as ineffective. ANCYL is said to be spearheaded by a group of radical leaders; the primary ones including Nelson Mandela, Sisulu and Tambo.
Mandela leads Defiance campaign
22 June, 1952, South Africa: Nelson Mandela, a black lawyer, anti-apartheid activist and a member of the ANC addressed a crowd of 10,000 people in Durban. The address kickstarts the party’s Defiance Campaign, a movement that encompasses volunteers defying apartheid laws by deliberately entering ‘Whites-only’ areas and getting themselves arrested. This campaign spearheaded by Mandela, as the national volunteer-in-chief is seen by many to be a large-scale, political mobilisation against apartheid laws. Mandela who has played a key role in organising the campaign has been travelling across the country, meeting potential volunteers. He has recruited, trained and organised volunteers for this campaign. Nelson Mandela rose to prominence when he and friend Oliver Tambo opened the first black law firm.
Mandela sent to prison
June 12, 1964, South Africa: Nelson Mandela, ANC Youth League president has been arrested and sent to Robben Island for 18 years for sabotage and treason. Mandela, one of the prominent faces of the Defiance Movement, has been arrested along with 10 other ANC activists. Mandela has already served prison sentences before. His arrest has sparked widespread condemnation from the international community and South Africa that saw large scale protests for his release. Mandela, like other black prisoners, will face tough conditions as the prison is known to be the toughest in South Africa.
A new dawn in South Africa
May 10, 1994, South Africa: South Africa witnessed history being created when ANC and anti-apartheid leader Nelson Mandela was sworn in as the country’s president. The country which has been divided over apartheid and has witnessed violent struggles between the black and white, participated in its first non-racial democratic election on April 27. President Mandela, in his speech to the nation, watched by millions around the world spoke of “shared patriotism that summons South Africans’ communal exhilaration in their land and their relief at being freed from the world’s disapproval.” The President himself, like many other black citizens, voted for the first time. The president however, has a tough road ahead, as he inherits a fractured economy, aggravated by international bans and a hostile international community.
Era of change
President Mandela wears the Springbok emblem
1995, South Africa The nation erupted in joy and cheers when president Nelson Mandela strode into the Rugby World Cup final in Johannesburg wearing South African colours and bringing the overwhelmingly White crowd of more than 60,000 people to its feet.
His historic decision to wear the Springbok emblem, the symbol that once was the symbol of oppression, conveyed the message that Rugby, which was for so long shunned by the black population, was now for all South Africans.
The crowd at the stadium chanted "Nelson! Nelson! Nelson!" as the president congratulated the victorious home team in a moment that symbolised racial integration and harmony.
Nation in mourning
December 5, 2013, South Africa South Africa today mourned the death of former President Nelson Mandela. The beloved revolutionary, lovingly termed the ‘Mandiba’ was a lawyer and anti-apartheid leader and has been instrumental in abolishing of apartheid laws. His message of reconciliation inspired the world after he negotiated a peaceful end to discrimination against the blacks in the country.
Nelson Mandela was born in Mveso, Transkei, South Africa in 1918. Mandela’s father served as a counselor to tribal chiefs for several years. He was baptized in the Methodist Church and he went on to become the first in his family to attend school. One of his teachers gave him the name ‘Nelson’; keeping in sync with the tradition of giving the child a Christian name. Nelson Mandela continued higher education and became actively involved in the anti-apartheid movement, joining the African National Congress in 1942 and for next 20 years campaigned against apartheid.
After his retirement, he was actively involved in many charities for the betterment and upliftment of marginalised blacks and advocated an equal society. He founded the Nelson Mandela Foundation to focus on rural development, school construction, and combating HIV/AIDS. He advocated for several social and human rights organisations including the ONE Campaign and SOS Children's Villages.
Nelson Mandela will forever be remembered as the freedom fighter, who emerged from prison after 27 years to lead his country out of oppressive decades of apartheid. Text contributed by: Shubham Ghoshal, Shreyans Jain,Vidhi Bindal; AIS Vas 1, X
1925: Nelson Mandela attends primary school near Qunu, SA . 1940: Mandela is expelled for joining a student protest 1941: Escapes an arranged marriage; becomes a mine security officer 1942: Completes BA from the University of South Africa (UNISA) 1944: Mandela attends African National Congress (ANC) meetings 1952: Defiance Campaign begins; a political mobilisation against apartheid laws 1963: Sent to the infamous Robben Island as a prisoner for the first time 1994: Elected as South Africa’s first ever black president 1995: Launches his autobiography ‘Long Walk to Freedom’